Prior to the Establishment of the ESC
The Urban Design Council, under the direction of Michael Kwartler, FAIA, developed the first performance-based Housing Quality Zoning adopted by NYC. Housing Quality Zoning's ("HQZ") performance-based system consisted of 26 program elements organized into four interrelated programs: Neighborhood Impact, Recreation Space, Security and Safety, and Building Interior. Unlike conventional and Form-Based zoning HQZ does not predetermine the form of the development but rather delineates the problem to be solved, e.g., the proposed development into its context. It is the forerunner of Quality Housing Zoning.
Kwartler/Jones developed Midtown Zoning's performance-based Height and Setback regulations based on daylight standard derived from an analysis of the 80 year old history of zoning in Midtown. Kwartler/Jones were consultants to NYC Department of City Planning (adopted 1981).
Michael Kwartler and Associates' : "Preserving Sunlight in New York City's Parks: A Zoning Proposal," (1991): Prepared a report for the Parks Council describing an as-of-right site and orientation specific zoning methodologies to conserve existing sunlight and limit additional shadowing of NYC's parks, playgrounds and publicly accessible open space.
Michael Kwartler and Associates' : "Building in Your Own Backyard: Affordable Land for Affordable Housing," (1990): The report identified unused floor area on NYC Housing Authority estates to create new Affordable Housing in low to mid-rise infill housing to re-integrate the Tower-in-the-Park housing estates into their context.